Friday, 24 June 2011

Genetic factors play an important role in the processes of autoimmune, HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 on Caucasian race, HLA-Bw46 and HLA-B5 in the career of China and HLA-B17 in blacks.

Environmental factors also play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Graves disease. 
Viruses that infect human thyroid cells to stimulate the expression of DR4 on the surface of the thyroid follicular cells, apparently as a result of the influence of cytokines (especially alpha interferon). Rod shaped gram negative infections Yersinia enterocolitica, that causes chronic enterocolitis, is suspected to have crossed with the thyroid gland otoantigen reactions.

Antibodies against Yersinia enterocolitica demonstrated that a reaction with TSH-R antibody crossed in the membrane of the thyroid cells that can trigger an acute episode of Graves disease. High iodine intake can increase levels of immunoglobulin iodide which is more inmunogénica which increases the tendency to the emergence of autoimmune thyroid disease.

Doses Signs and symptoms of Graves disease, there are two large groups of images and ekstratiroidal hormones which may not appear. Characteristics of form hormones due to hyperplasia of the thyroid goiter and hyperthyroidism due to excessive secretion of thyroid hormone. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the form of hipermetabolisme demonstration and excessive sympathetic activity. Patients complain of fatigue, tremors, could withstand the heat, sweat more when wet, hot skin weight loss despite increased appetite, palpitations, tachycardia, diarrhoea, muscle atrophy, and Mademoiselle. weakness.

Ekstratiroidal manifestation of infiltration of the skin of oftalmopati local and generally confined to the lower extremities. Oftalmopati 50% to 80% of patients is characterized by bulging eyes, eyelid fissure expanded, reduced opening and closing, delay palpebral (eyelid the delay in the next movement of the eyes) and the failure of convergence. Classical clinical picture of the Ant Graves disease
the single includes three hipertitoidisme, diffuse goiter and eksoftalmus. Changes in the eye (oftalmopati Graves), according to the American Thyroid Association is classified as follows (known by the acronym NOSPECS)


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